Hand raking is the best way to level the soil and work out hills and hollows. Few lawns established on clay soils can absorb more than 0.5 inch of water per hour. Seed in early spring, late summer or fall (spring plantings are at risk from hot and dry conditions over the summer). If clippings are heavy enough to hold the grass down or shade it, catch them or rake and remove them. Zoysiagrass is very drought resistant. Also, many companies offer materials for organic lawn care. A thin projection from the top of the leaf sheath in grasses; it may be a fringe of hairs, membranous, or absent. For more tips on when to overseed your lawn in North Carolina, visit us at JonathanGreen.com or visit your nearest independent retail store for valuable lawn and garden advice. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. A stage in the development of certain insects, caterpillars (butterfly larva), or grubs (beetle larva). As each product is tested and proven to be effective, it will be added to the list of available options for turf pest management. Unlike cool-season grasses, some warm-season grasses must be planted either by sod or other vegetative means because seeds either are not available or do not result in uniform stands. Find the best dates for planting and transplanting vegetables and fruit! Perennial ryegrass should be mowed at 1.5 to 2.5 inches when mixed with Kentucky bluegrass. Zoysia seed should be planted in late spring / early summer after soil temperatures are 70+ degrees (day time 80+ consistent) AND all danger of freeze / frost is past. NC State University and NC A spacing greater than 12-inches is not suggested when plugging on bare ground. It is safe to use on new seeds and is designed to make new seed grow quicker and thicker. If perennial grassy weeds like bermudagrass are scattered throughout, consider killing the entire lawn. Shape the underlying subsoil to the desired contour, and redistribute topsoil uniformly above the subsoil. The times and rates for planting vegetative grasses are given in Table 2. Spring or late-winter seedlings are often less than satisfactory because the seedling roots do not have time to become well established before the heat and drought of summer. Most selective post- emergence herbicides that control annual grassy weeds, such as crabgrass, should also be applied at least four weeks before seeding. When renovating warm-season turfgrass with sod, the damaged grass should be replaced with the same cultivar to help ensure a uniform appearance. Planting calendar for Wilmington, North Carolina. The second group of products is not a nutrient. Grasses used in North Carolina generally consists of warm season grasses such as: bermuda, zoysia, centipede, and carpet grass is even used in shady, wet areas of the state. The flat portion of the grass leaf above the sheath. Tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, fine fescue, and perennial ryegrass are common types of cool-season grasses. N.C. Hand rake again to break up the crusty surface before planting. Cooperative Extension county center. Kentucky bluegrass produces a high-quality, medium- to fine-textured turf, at least when grown in the right climate. When mixed with tall fescue, Kentucky bluegrass tends to dominate where the soil is limed and the turf is adequately fertilized and mowed fairly short. The low-maintenance grass covers over 1 million acres in the state, and is the grass … They are not as cold tolerant as Meyer and should not be mowed as short as Emerald and Meyer. Treat only those areas that need it. Bermudagrass establishes quickly, withstands wear and traffic, and recovers rapidly from injury. Example: A 10-10-10 fertilizer. A rake or hoe is ideal for small areas. Use a knife or sharp spade for trimming to fit irregularly shaped areas. Cultivar texture ranges from coarse to fine, and it forms a dense, durable surface when grown in full sunlight. In Massachusetts, for example, early fall is the ideal time to plant grass seed. Use the seeding rates as suggested for new establishment unless seeding into existing vegetation. Ideally, though, a the right type of conditions would call for between 8 to 15 pounds of seed … Fertilize with 0.5 to 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft every one to three weeks for the fastest spread. commitment to diversity. Do not apply these herbicides over the rooting areas of trees and ornamentals that are not listed as being tolerant on the herbicide label. This will bring soil to the surface with minimal disruption and create an environment for good seed-to-soil contact. Centipedegrass is a slow growing, apple-green, coarsely leaved turfgrass that is best used as a low maintenance, general purpose turf. The particular herbicide used depends upon the weeds present and the tolerance of the turfgrass to the herbicide. Tall fescue thrives in sun or medium shade. The best grass seed for zone 6 will depend upon your needs. A cultivated variety of a species, such as K-31 and Rebel. Herbicide that needs to be applied after weeds emerge to be effective. Lightly cover the seed by hand raking or dragging with a mat or span of chain-link fence. The schedule for planting grass depends on what kind of grass you're planting. The basal portion of the leaf surrounding the grass stem. It is not suitable for use in the coastal plain. This process includes the following steps: Reduce competition. If prolonged periods of rainfall prevent mowing, clippings may be long enough to shade or smother the grass. As recommended above, it’s best to submit a soil sample for testing when establishing a new lawn to determine how much lime and fertilizer should be added to your soil. If an additional application of nitrogen is made between these dates to improve the color, the rate should be between 0.2 and 0.5 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 square feet. Don’t assume more is better. Warm-season grasses are usually seeded or planted as a single variety (monoculture) rather than in blends and mixtures. We recommend Green Up Lawn Food for Seeding and Sodding. An underground creeping stem that can produce roots and shoots at each node. A 6- to 12-inch spacing should be used for more rapid establishment, whereas using a wider spacing may delay fill for greater than one year. There should be no visible footprints after walking on it. Zoysiagrass cultivars were once limited to two cultivars: Meyer and the finer textured Emerald. Some weeds growing in small areas may be controlled by hand weeding or removal using a small hoe, rake, or shovel. Keep unnecessary traffic off the renovated lawn until it is well established. For this reason, they usually perform better the farther east and south you go in those regions. A blue certified tag indicates that the seed or plants have met certain standards to assure high quality and low levels of contaminants. Use a complete N-P-K turf-grade fertilizer that provides about 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft or the amount recommended on your soil test. It is sometimes found in inexpensive commercial seed mixtures but should be avoided. On soils difficult to loosen with hand equipment, loosen the top 2 to 3 inches for good to excellent results. Specific tolerance may be associated with an anatomical or physiological characteristic in the plant. Then apply more water until the desired depth or amount is achieved. A light power raking is better than trying to remove too much debris at one time. If the lawn is conditioned for this stress and has a reasonable level of maintenance, it should survive without permanent damage. These cultivars, such as El Toro, Crowne, Palisades, Empire, Atlantic, and Jamur, are coarser in texture (similar to newer tall fescues) and are quicker to establish and recover from injury. Coastal plain areas would be seeded two weeks earlier, whereas the mountain areas would be seeded two weeks later. The balanced use of all available control methods is called Integrated Pest Management (IPM). For sandy soils, typical to the coastal plain and sandhills of North Carolina, fertilizer rates should be increased by 20 percent. They are better adapted to the mountains and piedmont. Spread sprigs over the surface using rates provided in Table 2 for new areas. A grass plant shoot arising in the axes of leaves in the unelongated portion of the stem. Because annual ryegrass is an annual, it must be re-seeded each fall. In transition zone states, such as North Carolina or Arkansas, September is typically the best month for planting tall fescue seed. Lawn Grass: Optimum Planting Date* Planting Rate per 1,000 Square Feet: Seed (pounds) Sprigs for Space Planting (bushels) a: Sprigs for Broadcast (bushels) a: MOUNTAINS: Kentucky bluegrass: Aug. 15 to Sept. 1: 1.5 to 2 – – Kentucky bluegrass / fine fescue mix: Aug. 15 to Sept. 1 Well-prepared soil with adequate nutrients for growing grass encourages the development of a healthy lawn (Figure 2). Homeowners must now look for other alternatives. The proper mowing heights are presented in. There is a PDF version of this document for downloading and printing. This will reduce the competition for new seedlings. Prepare a good seedbed. Seeding: Warm-season grasses may be seeded successfully between March 1 and July 1, depending on the species used. This mixture may be used in shady sites rather than using fine fescues. Our free planting guide calculates the best dates for sowing seeds indoors and outdoors, and for transplanting seedlings to the garden—all customized to your location. They should not be used in the coastal plain. The plant is unharmed by consistent mowing as long as stubble is left 3 to 4 inches (7.5-10 cm.) Avoid fall or winter applications of nitrogen to reduce winter injury. Zoysiagrass spreads by stolons and rhizomes, but it is easier to keep out of flowerbeds than bermudagrass. In the absence of rain, water dormant lawns with a minimal amount (about 0.25 inch) every three weeks to keep the growing points hydrated. The homeowner should cut often enough that less than one-third of the total leaf surface is removed. Several newer cultivars, however, can also be seeded that have a medium texture. Cavalier, Zeon, Zorro, Geo, and Leisure Time are new zoysiagrass cultivars with a moderate growth rate and a fine texture similar to Emerald. Seed the annual ryegrass at 1.5 to 2 pounds per 1,000 sq ft. As your grass grows, it helps the environment by stabilizing soil and reducing air pollution, noise, heat, dust, and glare. Apply a starter type fertilizer (one that is high in phosphorus) based on the type of grass and the planting method. Uneven ground can make mowing below 1 inch difficult. These older cultivars can become thatchy—puffy due to an accumulation of dead, dying, decaying plant residue at the soil surface. Using the planting schedules below will help you get the most out of your garden. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. It has stiff leaves that produce a very dense turf, which people often describe as feeling like “walking on a cushion.” Zoysiagrass grows more slowly than bermudagrass, and thus requires less frequent mowing. Vegetative planting is necessary for some grasses that do not produce viable seed (seed that will germinate). Even when the soil temperature is warm enough to germinate … Thatch may need to be removed every two to three years, but care should be taken because the stems can easily be torn from the ground, leaving bare spots. Perennial ryegrass is similar in appearance to Kentucky bluegrass, but is only adapted to the mountains for use as a monostand turf. Find the best dates for planting and transplanting vegetables and fruit! For Upper Midwest lawns, mid-August may bring ideal conditions. Mow at the proper height. Warm-season grasses should not be seeded in the fall as there is inadequate time for maturity before the first expected frost. And consider the amount of time, effort, and money you are willing to spend for turfgrass maintenance. Bermuda is a warm season grass and should generally NOT be planted in late fall. Keep planting material moist until established. Roll the soil lightly to firm the surface, and provide good seed-to-soil contact. Pesticides are used only when necessary. Rainfall or irrigation is often needed to move the chemical into the top few inches of the soil for best activity. After the third mowing, water to a depth of 6 inches. Most finely textured, high-quality turf-type bermudagrasses are planted using sod, sprigs, or plugs. The visual characteristics associated with a given disease. Many new cultivars with improved color, texture, and pest resistance are now commercially available. If applied evenly and lightly, these materials need not be removed. The plant … If you plan to seed a cool-season grass in the fall, such as tall fescue or Kentucky bluegrass, and your lawn site is ready for seeding in late March, April, May, or June, you can obtain a weak, temporary cover to hold the soil in place by seeding annual ryegrass. Sod-forming grasses, such as Kentucky bluegrass, bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and centipedegrass, tend to build up thatch when they are heavily fertilized and watered. Seed Head: This is the flower of the grass plant. See Table 2 for different species and locations. Herbicide that injures only those portions of a plant with which it comes into contact. Always consider rainfall events when irrigating turfgrasses. Readily available sources of nitrogen that exhibit fast turf greening, short residual, and high burn potential, such as ammonium sulfate. Kentucky bluegrass should be mowed at a height of 1.5 to 2.5 inches when planted alone. St. Augustinegrass grows best in fertile, well-drained soils. Liquid products can be applied to lawns to provide green color without influencing growth. The chemical in a pesticide that controls the target pest. It should be mowed when it attains 1 inch in height and no higher than 2.0 inches. Generally, late winter or spring seeding of these grasses is not recommended. The type of grass and the planting method you select will determine the best time of year to plant. Zoysiagrass (Emerald and Meyer cultivars), This and other Extension publications about lawns (such as maintenance calendars, recommended cultivar lists, pest factsheets, pest control recommendations, pest management manual) are available on the. Start planting your cool season grass seeds when the fall temperatures reach … If this ratio cannot be located, then a straight-grade analysis product (for example, 10-10-10) may be used at a 0.5 to 0.75 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft rate. Young and actively growing weeds are easiest to control, so make sure that the soil is moist several days before application. Suggested pattern for applying seed and fertilizer. A plant that starts from seed and completes its life cycle within the same growing season. For more specific maintenance information on your grass type, refer to the NC State TurfFiles maintenance calendars. Invest in a spreader. Bahiagrass spreads by stolons and rhizomes. Applying 0.5 inch of water every three to four days is adequate for most situations. Improper irrigation of lawns results in wasted water, added cost, and unhealthy plants. Hard-to-control weeds, such as perennial grasses with underground shoots or weeds in large areas, are best controlled with herbicides. Bahiagrass is seldom recommended as a lawn grass because of its open canopy, unsightly seedheads, and difficulty in mowing. Determine the amount of fertilizer, ratio of nutrients or fertilizer elements, and time of application based on the grasses being grown. Ideal seeding times for warm season grasses is April-May in the NC Piedmont. A mix of Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass should be seeded at the rate of 2.5 pounds per 1,000 sq ft, with Kentucky bluegrass making up 60 percent of the mix by weight. They grow best in the summer, go dormant in the fall at the first heavy frost, turn brown, and then green up slowly the following spring. This approach will only provide limited turfgrass cover and will not be a permanent solution. Sodding is placing sod stripped from one site to another for an “instant” lawn. It is formulated to loosen up the soil to allow for better root growth. Set the rotary or reel mower at the lowest setting, mow, and collect the clippings. Area of adaptation of turfgrasses in North Carolina. Warm-season grasses are slow to green up in the spring, grow best in the summer, and go dormant after the first heavy frost. Gentle winter rains minimize runoff, and alternate freezing and thawing help incorporate lime into the soil. Your decision should be based on region, climate, intended use or wear at the site, and desired appearance. This gives … You should plant tall fescue seed in the fall, and it may require annual reseeding. Use cans or a rain gauge to determine how much water is being delivered in a certain period of time. St. Augustinegrass is very shade and salt tolerant but is considered the least cold tolerant lawn grass. Preplanting renovation procedures are designed to create the optimum environment for the establishment of newly planted grasses. You may also encounter more weeds than you would if planting in the fall. Black Beauty lawns are a rich dark green color and the leaves have a waxy coating like that of an apple that seals in moisture. Unlike warm-season grasses, cool-season grasses remain green throughout most of the winter. Cool season grasses. Fine fescue should be mowed at 1.5 to 2.5 inches when mixed with Kentucky bluegrass but at 2.5 inches or higher when mixed with tall fescue. Other herbicides may be applied to young seedlings during establishment. This same technique can be used on slopes and compacted soils. Early fall (late August to early October) is the best time to overseed your lawn. Keep the mower blades sharp and balanced. These are some of the major causes of turf deterioration: The problems that caused the lawn to deteriorate must be corrected before the renovation process begins. In North Carolina, it is well suited for the mountains and can be grown in combination with tall fescue in the piedmont. These cultivars must be planted vegetatively, and are low- and slow-growing. Fertilize after planting. This is especially important if you are planting centipedegrass. See Table 3a, b, or c, depending on your region, to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer to apply and the time of application. In small bare spots, loosen the top 4 to 6 inches of the soil with a rake, hoe, or shovel. Use one bale per 1,000 sq ft for warm-season grasses and one to two bales for cool-season grasses. However, it will take several applications spaced three to four weeks apart to completely control bermudagrass. If pesticides are used, always read and follow label directions. St. Augustinegrass is not tolerant of heavy traffic, compaction, or cold weather. Site and soil preparation, including fertilization, are especially important. Figure 4. Fine fescues include creeping red, chewings, and hard fescue. To help reduce turf loss: Avoid high nitrogen fertilization of cool-season grasses in the late spring or summer and of warm-season grasses in the fall or winter. Apply half the seed in one direction and the other half moving at right angles to the first pass (Figure 3). Uniformly apply needed fertilizer and lime based on soil test results. Rake, bag, and remove the clippings when mowing is delayed. Annual ryegrass is used only when a temporary turf cover is needed. They may not persist in sunny locations exposed to high temperature extremes, excessive soil moisture or humidity, or heavy traffic. To reduce the danger of spreading disease and injuring the turf, mow when the soil and plants are dry. Centipedegrass grows best with more acidic soil with a pH close to 5.5. Generally, late winter … Excellent sod results from rhizomes (underground stems) that spread, with most cultivars recuperating from and tolerating pest control measures and moderate levels of traffic. Seeding. To avoid seriously injuring the lawn, a 3-inch blade spacing is required to remove thatch from centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass. The NC State TurfFiles Turf Select Decision Aid program is a free online tool designed to guide homeowners through the turf selection process. If spring or summer nitrogen applications, or both, are applied to tall fescue, fungicide applications may be necessary to reduce disease symptoms. Soil particles should be no larger than marble size, and pea gravel size is even better. Centipedegrass can become thatchy, especially when mowed high and infrequently or when heavily fertilized. With proper maintenance, it will provide a dense, lush lawn. Seeding rates range from 1 to 2 pounds per 1,000 sq ft. Higher rates can result in weak, thin stands that are more susceptible to disease and high temperature stress. Large areas planted with bermudagrass or zoysiagrass sprigs require a minimum of 3 to 5 bushels of sprigs per 1,000 square feet and 5 to 10 bushels (yards) for extremely fast cover. After the lawn has been mowed three times, remaining weeds may be controlled using the minimum label rate of a broadleaf herbicide. Warm-season grasses are … We have also included general recommendations in Table 2 for planting some cool-season grass … Warm-season weeds are also much less active at this time of year. Irrigation helps maintain color, but may also increase the risk of disease. Green Up Lawn Food for Seeding and Sodding. Press them into the top 0.5 to 1 inch of soil using an old disk set straight, special planter, cultipacker, or roller. Avoid any significant nitrogen fertilization of cool-season grasses, such as tall fescue, after the February application until September for the central piedmont. Also, the demand for water by industry and municipalities is usually low at this time. Take soil samples from the front yard and the backyard to determine soil pH and nutrient requirements. Fescue grass (Festuca spp., hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture zones 1 through 11) is a cool-season grass type. To prevent drying of planting material, keep the top 1.5 inches of the soil moist. As a general rule, plant cool-season grass seed at least 45 days before the estimated date of your first fall frost, before soil and air temperatures drop to less favorable levels. A tightly intermingled layer of undecomposed roots, stems, and shoots located between the soil surface and the green vegetation of the turf grass. These characteristics become more evident as the turf matures and the maintenance level increases. Both cool-season (northern) and warm-season (southern) grasses are grown in North Carolina. Sow 6 to 8 lbs. They are very slow to establish from plugs, often taking three years for total coverage when planted on 12-inch centers. It prefers acidic soils and low levels of phosphorus and may not require the addition of lime and phosphorus. Removal of soil cores from a turf with hollow tines or spoons. Start sodding from a straight edge and butt strips together in a bricklike pattern. Send approximately 1 cup of the air-dried soil sample to the NCDA&CS Agronomic Division Soil Testing Services, 1040 Mail Service Center, Raleigh NC 27699-1040. Soil temperatures in the fall are still warm, which promotes optimum seed germination, and cooler air temperatures are better for grass growth. If irrigation is not available or desirable, then an alternative to irrigating is to allow the turf to go semi-dormant to dormant. Water the area to enhance settling. The first step in lawn renovation is the control of undesirable vegetation that will compete with newly planted grasses. In the last 20 years, a number of zoysiagrass cultivars have been released. ... it's too late to plant cool-season grass seed. Otherwise, do not bag the clippings. Use a mower with a sharp blade. The idea is simple. These products have not been found to have any significant impact on turfgrass health. Every three to four weeks during the growing season, add 0.5 to 1 pound of nitrogen per 1,000 sq ft until the plants have completely covered the desired lawn area. Lay sod as soon as possible after it has been harvested to prevent injury. Annual ryegrass is a problem weed in tall fescue because it cannot be selectively removed from the stand. An above-ground creeping stem that can produce roots and shoots at each node. A plant that may or may not start from seed, may or may not produce seed, and generally lives more than two years. To ensure uniform coverage, use a centrifugal (rotary) or drop-type spreader. Use Love Your Soil. Attempts to upgrade existing lawns when conditions are not conducive to good growth are difficult at best. Planting during cool weather in fall and spring coincides with the most active growth periods for these grass types. 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